General Certificate of Education
Advanced Subsidiary Level and Advanced Level
5 The History of the
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
If you have been given an Answer Booklet, follow the instructions on the front cover of the Booklet.
Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen on both sides of the paper.
You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Answer four questions.
You must answer Question 1 (Section A) and any three questions from Section B.
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
All questions in this paper carry equal marks.
SECTION A: The Road to Secession and Civil War, 1846–61
You must answer Question 1.
THE SECESSION CRISIS, 1860–61
1 Read the sources, and then answer the question.
abolition sentiment of the Northern States has steadily increased in hostility
to the rights of these States as equal members of the
she came into the
3rd. That she ought not to submit to the inauguration of Abraham Lincoln as her President.
on Secession from
The question is, has the
Constitution delegated to Congress power to coerce a State which is attempting
to withdraw or has actually withdrawn from the
But if we possessed this power, would
it be wise to use it? The object would be to preserve the
Buchanan’s Annual Message to Congress,
I would say to the people of the
South; hold fast to the
Crittenden’s Plea for Peace,
I have no purpose to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.
that by universal laws and the Constitution, the
follows from this that no State upon its own can lawfully get out of the Union:
that ordinances to that effect are legally void and that acts of violence
within any state against the
therefore consider that the Union is unbroken and to the extent of my ability I
shall take care, as the Constitution specifically requires me, that the laws of
Lincoln, First Inaugural Address,
secession was occurring, Buchanan was paralysed by
indecision; while denying the right of secession he asserted the federal
government possessed no constitutional power to prevent it. He hoped that if
hostilities could be avoided, a way might be found to bring seceded states back
From an historian’s account of the secession crisis, 1999.
Now answer the following question.
‘The secession crisis of 1860–1 only led to civil war because of President Buchanan’s weakness and indecision.’ Using Sources A-E, discuss how far the evidence supports this assertion.
You must answer three questions from this section.
2 How influential a factor was the
doctrine of Manifest Destiny in the huge territorial expansion of the
3 Assess the respective strengths and weaknesses of Presidential and Congressional Reconstruction policies.
4 How successful were attempts to deal with the problems of farmers in the late nineteenth century?
5 Analyse the factors which led to the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
6 ‘The revolt of rural and small town Americans against the cities’. Discuss this assessment of the 1920s.
7 Assess relations between the
8 Analyse the reasons for the dramatic change
in social attitudes and lifestyles that occurred in