General Certificate of Education
Advanced Subsidiary Level and Advanced Level
Paper 5 The
History of the
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
If you have been given an Answer Booklet, follow the instructions on the front cover of the Booklet.
Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen on both sides of the paper.
You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Answer four questions.
You must answer Question 1 (Section A) and any three questions from Section B.
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
All questions in this paper carry equal marks.
SECTION A: The Road to Secession and Civil War, 1846-61
You must answer Question 1.
THE 1850 COMPROMISE
1 Read the sources and then answer the question.
desirable for the peace, concord, and harmony of the
That California be admitted as a
That the other territories acquired from
3. Resolved, That the federal government assume the Texan national debt contracted before annexation.
That the slave trade in the
5. Resolved, That a new and more effective Fugitive Slave Act be passed for the return of slaves who escape into other states.
6. Resolved, That Congress declare that it has no power to interfere with the interstate slave trade.
Senator Clay’s Resolutions to Congress, January 1850.
believed from the first that the agitation of the subject of slavery would, if
not protected by some timely and effective measure, end in disunion. The cords
that bind the States together are snapping one by one. For example three great
Evangelical Churches are now divided. The Federal Union can be saved only by
satisfying the South that it can remain within it in safety and that the
John C. Calhoun’s last speech to the Senate, 4 March 1850.
that Congress has the Constitutional power to establish slavery in the
Territories. But there is a higher law than the Constitution which regulates
our authority: the law of God whence alone the laws of man can derive their
sanction. The new Fugitive Slave Bill could endanger the
Senator Seward’s speech to the Senate, 11 March 1850.
resolved by the people of
That the State of
Third, That the State of Georgia will and ought to resist, including (as a last resort) a disruption of every tie which binds her to the Union, any future Act of Congress abolishing Slavery in the District of Columbia, without the consent of the slaveholders thereof; of any Act suppressing the slave-trade states: or any Act prohibiting the introduction of slaves into the Territories of Utah and New Mexico.
That it is the deliberate opinion of this Convention, that upon the Fugitive
Slave Bill by the proper authorities depends the preservation of our much
The Georgia Platform, September 1850.
Compromise of 1850 did not repeal the Compromise of 1820 which dealt with the
From a modern US historian’s account of the 1850 Compromise.
Now answer the following question.
‘There was never any real prospect that the 1850 Compromise would satisfactorily resolve the sectional tensions which arose out of the Mexican War.’ Use Sources A-E to show how far the evidence supports this statement.
You must answer three questions from this section.
2 Explain how and why the belief in
3 To what extent did the former slaves benefit from Reconstruction policies between 1865 and 1877?
4 How far is it justified to speak of an ‘agrarian revolt’ among American farmers in the period 1867–1896?
5 Why, in the great battles over Civil Rights in the 1960s, was the plight of the Native American Indians largely ignored?
6 Evaluate the factors that caused the
Great Depression in the
7 Why, in spite of its stated policy
of neutrality, did
8 Examine the consequences of the
great expansion of higher education in the