General Certificate of Education
Advanced Subsidiary Level and Advanced Level
Paper 5 The
History of the
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
If you have been given an Answer Booklet, follow the instructions on the front cover of the Booklet.
Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen on both sides of the paper.
You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Answer four questions.
You must answer Question 1 (Section A) and any three questions from Section B.
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
All questions in this paper carry equal marks.
SECTION A: The Road to Secession and Civil War, 1846-61
You must answer Question 1.
Our country is a theater which exhibits two radically different political systems: one resting on the basis of slavery, the other on the basis of voluntary labor of free men. Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States, but side by side within the American Union. These antagonistic systems are continually coming into closer conflict, and collision results.
Shall I tell you what this collision means? They who think
it is accidental, unnecessary, the work of fanatical agitators, mistake the
case. It is an irrepressible conflict between opposing and enduring forces, and
it means that the
William H. Seward, speech at Rochester, New York, 25 October 1858.
The abolition sentiment of the Northern States has led to ceaseless war upon the constitutional rights of the Southern States: to an open and shameless denial of that Constitutional provision intended to secure the return of fugitive slaves, and of the laws of Congress to give it effect. It has prompted the armed invasion of Southern soil by stealth for the diabolical purposes of inaugurating a war of blacks against the whites throughout the Southern States. It has prompted large masses of Northern people openly to sympathize with the invaders of our country and elevate John Brown, the leader of a band of midnight assassins and robbers, to the rank of a hero and martyr. It has destroyed all national parties, and has now finally organized a party confined to a hostile section.
Therefore we declare:
2nd. That she came into the
3rd. That she ought not submit to Abraham Lincoln as president.
Resolutions on secession from
We love the Union because at home and abroad, collectively
and individually, it gives us character as a nation, renders us equal to the
greatest European Power, and in another half century, will make us the
greatest, richest, and most powerful people on earth. We love the
New York Courier and Enquirer, a Northern newspaper, 1 December 1860.
Does the election of
The Constitutional rights and guarantees claimed by the Southern States are:
1 That the Constitution of the
2 That the citizens of the South
have the right to go with their slaves into the common territories of the
3 That by the plain letter of the Constitution the owner of a slave is entitled to reclaim his property in any state into which the slave may escape, and that both the General and State governments are legally bound to enforce this provision.
4 The antagonisms between these recognized rights and the doctrine and principles of the Black Republican party is plain, direct and irreconcilable. One or other must give way.
On the 4th day of March 1861 the Federal Government will pass into the hands of the Abolitionists.
I entertain no doubt of your right or duty to secede from
Howell Cobb, Address to the people of Georgia, 6 December 1860.
On a previous occasion I stated that I have no purpose,
directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the
States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have
no inclination to do so. I hold that, by universal law and by the Constitution,
It follows that no State can by itself lawfully get out of
the Union; that resolutions and ordinances to that effect are legally void; and
that acts of violence, within any State against the authority of the
I therefore consider that constitutionally, the Union is
unbroken; and to the extent of my ability I shall ensure as the Constitution
expressly enjoins upon me, that the laws of the
Lincoln’s first Inaugural Address as President, 4 March 1861.
Now answer the following question.
‘By 1861 attitudes towards the
You must answer three questions from this section.
do you account for the huge territorial expansion of the
3 Compare Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis as war leaders.
why trade unionism made only limited progress in the
5 Assess the effectiveness of the different tactics used by the various branches of the Civil Rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s.
6 Why did some groups benefit more from the New Deal than others?
the view that the Spanish-American War marked the emergence of the
8 Examine the influence of the mass media on American society from 1952 to 1968.