Charles Evans Hughes, majority opinion, Schechter v. United States, 1935.
The question of chief importance relates to the provision of the codes to the hours and wages of those employed ... It is plain that these requirements are imposed in order to govern the details of defendants' management of their local business. The persons employed . .. are not employed in interstate commerce. Their wages have no direct relation to interstate commerce...The authority of the federal government may not be pushed to such an extreme.